Leadership Article 1 Page 9

€5.3bn per annum on innovation−related activities” (Carney et al, 2010).

New Product Launch is another indicator, leading onto Innovativeness Benchmarking, a concept that measures new product or service releases over a period of time, compared to the market leader. Emerging Tech. like Virtual Reality, AI, Crypto−Currency, Electric Vehicle and Drone technology are examples of industry indicators.