(2000) designed an audit questionnaire to gauge an organisations innovation capability with internal and external inputs in mind. For example, Brand Positioning is an indicator as is Consumer Engagement. Furthermore, Mairesse and Mohnen (2007) proposed a range of innovation activities as indicators:
- R&D expenditure
- Patent acquisition
- Product design
- Investment in People
Output indicators include Organisational Change, Business Transformation and Marketing Innovations — measured by new product sales and market share as a percentage of sales from existing and new products.